Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry which deals with treating occlusal abnormalities. Orthodontic treatment helps improving not only the appearance, but also the condition of oral cavity. Teeth, which are not properly aligned in the dental arch, are harder to brush, but are also more exposed to plaque and perodontium diseases. Occlusal abnormalities are often the causes of head and neck pains. Effective treatment improves the quality of chewing and pronunciation.
There are two types of orthodontic appliances used during the treatment:
- Fixed braces
They consist of brackets and bands placed on tooth’s surface by special kinds of glues. However, the source of force that puts pressure on teeth are the resilient wires fixed on brackets. They allow to achieve precise effects by putting pressure on teeth.
- Removable braces
Removable braces are appliances which patient can put on or take off independently. They consist of acrylic tiles and wires that hold dentures in place and are the source of force pushing on teeth. Removable braces efficiency as well as the treatment’s length depend on the type of defect, patient’s age and his cooperation with the doctor. The best time to use this kind of braces is during the period of children and teenagers’ growth.
Orthodontic treatment comprises several steps:
This bases on interview with a patient in order to learn about their needs and expectations. Next, the doctor carries out examinations necessary for planning the treatment: conducting detailed analysis of occlusion and muscles activity, taking a dental impressions needed for plaster diagnostic models and making x-rays and photos of dentition. The results of those examinations will allow to draw an individual treatment plan which will satisfy both patient and the doctor.
On the next visit patient is familiarized with the examination’s results and theirindividual treatment plan. This includes its beginning, course and estimated duration.
The next stage of orthodontic treatment is placing a fixed braces or giving out removable braces and presenting all precautions, advice and rules of use. The condition of oral cavity is vital. Before undergoing the treatment, it is necessary to cure teeth and gums inflammation and also remove residue and tartar.
Control visits take place with different frequency. It depends on the patient’s needs and the method used: fixed braces – once a 1 or 2 months, removable braces – once a 4-5 weeks. The aim of those visits is mainly to control the progress of treatment and adjusting dentures to gain the planned effect.
The final stage of orthodontic treatment is stabilizing achieved results and preventing the relapse of defect. This phase duration equals half of the time needed for fixing occlusal abnormalities. Depending on the type of treatment, the function of retainer may be fulfilled by previously used removable braces or acrylic one, removable retaining tile fitted on upper teeth and a thin wire glued to the interior of lower teeth.